Table 2. Mean Values of Motivation by Gender, Class in School, and Funding Source

  Females
(n = 451)
Males
(n = 351 )
  Freshman
(n= 275)
Seniors
(n= 183)
  Self-funded
(n=173)
All Other Payment Forms
(n=676)
 
  SD   SD Difference   SD   SD Difference   SD   SD Difference
Intrinsic motivation
- to know
20.9 4.7 19.9 5.1 1.0** 21.1 4.8 19.5 5.1 1.6** 20.2 4.8 20.5 4.9 0.3
Intrinsic motivation
- toward accomplishment
19.0 5.3 17.4 5.6 1.6*** 18.7 5.5 17.7 5.0 1.0 18.0 5.4 18.4 5.4 0.4
Intrinsic motivation
- to experience stimulation
14.8 5.5 13.5 5.5 1.3*** 14.8 5.4 13.0 5.3 1.8*** 14.1 5.4 14.4 5.5 0.3
Intrinsic Total 54.7 13.7 50.9 14.5 3.8*** 54.6 13.9 50.2 13.8 4.4** 52.3 13.8 53.3 14.1 1.0
Extrinsic motivation
- identified
23.7 3.9 22.6 4.6 1.1*** 23.8 4.0 22.5 4.8 1.3* 22.3 4.5 23.5 4.1 1.2
Extrinsic motivation
- introjected
21.2 5.4 19.1 6.0 2.1*** 21.0 5.6 19.5 5.9 1.5* 20.1 5.8 20.3 5.7 0.2
Extrinsic motivation
- external regulation
23.6 4.2 23.3 4.9 0.3 24.3 4.1 22.9 5.0 1.4** 22.4 4.9 23.8 4.4 1.4
Extrinsic Total 68.5 11.1 65.0 12.7 3.5*** 69.1 11.1 65.0 12.7 4.1** 64.8 12.2 67.6 11.7 2.8**
Amotivation 6.6 4.3 7.6 5.2 1.0*** 6.5 3.9 7.4 5.2 0.9 7.7 5.0 6.8 4.6 0.9***